Lett. & Poesie
 Sulla flower = “Hedysarum coronarium”, Italian sainfoin, French Honeysuckle
 Propolis is a wax-like resinous substance collected by honeybees from tree buds or other botanical sources and used as cement and to seal cracks or open spaces in the hive. Its color varies from green to brown and reddish, depending of its botanical source. Honeybees use propolis to seal any gap inside the hive that is smaller than 3/16" or 1/4" (5 mm or 6 mm) while they leave themselves a bee space of approximately 9.5 mm, or 3/8", larger spaces are filled with wax comb.
beekeepers assumed that bees sealed the cracks and joints of the
beehive with propolis to protect the colony from the elements
(like rain) and prevent drafts during the wintertime. More
recent research suggests that bees not only survive, but
actually thrive with increased ventilation during the winter in
most temperate regions of the world. Propolis is now thought to:
Bees may also use it to
prevent diseases and parasites in the hive.
Propolis is marketed by
health food stores as a traditional medicine, and for its
claimed beneficial effect on human health. Depending upon its
precise composition (below) it may show powerful local
antibiotic and antifungal properties. Also it is generally
efficient in treating skin burns. Claims have been made for its
use in treating allergy; it may stimulate the immune system, but
some warn that it should not be taken if the user is likely to
have severe allergic reaction to bees.
Propolis is used by music instrument makers to better show the wood grain. It is a component of Italian varnish and was reportedly used by Stradivarius.
 Robinia pseudoacacia = False Acacia, Black Locust, Locust Tree, Robinia
Translation courtesy of Marion Apley Porreca